Constellation Testnet: Video Demonstration of a 3-node Cluster

Welcome to the first demo of the Constellation testnet where Wyatt, Brendan, and Ryle give a high level overview of the local end-to-end dockerized test of Constellation. This test is running a 3 node cluster with our latest hierarchical bundle and reputation / schema updates.

This aforementioned implementation will be superseded by our Kubernetes test cluster so we can continue ramping up to larger experiments on Google Cloud. This upgrade will be made after we’ve finished verifying full functionality of the latest release.

Most of the information on the UI shown on the right of the screen is for debugging or metrics collection currently. We’re slowly running through the tests to verify correctness before we start scaling our latest code. We are modifying the performance tests and cluster configurations with our latest changes in order to start running larger experiments and collecting more data. Once this is completed, we will demonstrate a series of stress tests with varying cluster sizes, focusing on around 100 nodes and up, and from there start scaling even further.

The test that is running in the video is only processing a small number of transactions that have been slowed down purposefully, in order to aid with inspections in the nodes’ ‘cockpit’ UI shown on the right.

Live demo of the Constellation DAG:

Visualization of the Constellation DAG:

It may be helpful for developers to start getting familiar with our nomenclature for describing certain parts of Constellation. Here are some definitions to help you understand the output on the nodes dashboard “Cockpit”.



Bundle: Each bundle in Constellation has a hash equivalent to the hash of a typical block in a blockchain, except bundles can contain arbitrary collections of data, as opposed to just packaging transactions. It can be thought of as a block of blocks of blocks … to the Nth order that embeds observations of transactions across the network along with additional metadata used to determine optimal topologies and rewards.

address: The Constellation account structure and address for DAG transactions. It starts with 0xDAG….

allPeerAllBundleHashSync: ‘true’ means that all peers are synchronized on the chain they are on, therefore, consensus has been reached.

allPeerSynchronizedLastHash: ‘true’ means that all peers are synchronized on the chain they are on therefore consensus has been reached with respect to the last hash on the chain.

Balance: Account balance of the Constellation node that we are working in on the UI.

downloadMode: Has the peer downloaded the main chain and is it synced with the network, this is done from a merkle root hash in a way that is similar to Bittorrent.

genesisBundle: The genesis bundle on the current DAG.

genesisBundleHash: The sha256 hash of the genesis bundle for the testnet.

genesisBundleIds: Debugging option

Id: The nodes internal id dumped to base 58 format (debugging)

keyPair: The JSON serialized for of the wallet keypair which includes the private key.

last10TXHash: The last 10 test transaction hashes that this node sent.

last10ValidBundleHashes: The last 10 valid bundle hashes added to the DAG globally on the network. Equivalent to the last 10 block hashes.

lastValidBundle: Metadata about the last valid bundle such as, hierarchical depth, number of participants, and number of transactions, and the meme-score.

lastValidBundleHash: The last valid bundle hashe added to the DAG globally on the network. Equivalent to the last block hash.

memPoolSize : Size of transactions waiting to be validated and added to the DAG

numActiveBundles: This is the number of bundles that the node is currently processing and trying to combine and merge into the best possible bundle with the highest meme-score. Not ever piece of data makes it into the global block and nodes compete to fill a bundle to gain the best score. We can call this implicit proof-of-work.

numPeers: Number of connected peers to the node interface.

numValidBundles: This is the block-height of the DAG.

numValidTransactions: The total number of transactions validations over all history and added to the DAG

peerBestBundles: This is synchronization data which keeps track of each nodes internal highest scoring bundles. Nodes can process bundles in parallel.

Peers: IDs of connected peers to the local node

Reputations: Deterministic reputation of the nodes in the DAG including the local node, there are three in total.

selfBestBundle: The nodes current highest meme-score bundle across everything it has observed on the network.

shortID: Four character ID of the node that is being observed.

totalNumBroadcasts: A metric for tracking the total number of attempted broadcasts to other peers and it tracks each individual broadcast to multiple nodes. So one broadcast can reach 5 nodes and be counted as one.

totalNumBundleMessages: The total number of unique bundles that have been received on a given peer.

z_Bundles: Debugging information

z_UTXO: Debugging information

Z_peers: Debugging information

The testnet will launch on the 1st August, 2018 with permissioned nodes allowed to connect to our test cluster.

Happy Wednesday,

Brendan and Wyatt


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$DAG Distribution – Addressing Market Event Pt. 1

Hello Constellation Community,

DAG launched yesterday to unexpected market volatility.  It became quickly apparent what the issue was. In the spirit of transparency and community collaboration, we’d like to inform everyone and address what transpired.

Soon after token distribution a strategic investor with a large allocation unexpectedly sold their stake causing the dip in value.  We had a huge amount of interest during our private sale and we took time vetting and building relationships with our partners. We wanted to ensure they shared our long-term vision and passion for the space and technology we’re building.  Unfortunately, one specific investor did not make their intentions clear, like the community we are shocked, disappointed, and ultimately feel let down. It’s especially disheartening that someone with the privilege and capital to be an early round investor in Constellation would operate in such a way. The sad reality is this lack of professionalism is all too common in our industry at the moment, something that Constellation as a company is battling to change.

The individual in question has been contacted by myself.  The reason behind his actions were a result of our refusal to give him early distribution and privileged information on exchange listings. We take this kind of behavior seriously as it is insider trading. We will continue to uphold these standards regardless of whether it puts us at risk from actions like this. We are seeking legal advice on what remedial steps we can take with the individual and will keep you updated on this.

Let’s move forward.  Our price has stabilized and we’ve been in touch with our strategic investors to normalize and address the situation.  We’d like to thank the community for rallying to our support (you know who you are) during this minor blip. We’ve said it before but we’ll say it again – we’re in this for the long-term. Anyone who takes the time to read the whitepaper, research the team and review our content knows that.

There were accusations in Telegram yesterday that indicated that the volatility was a result of founder tokens being sold. Let me be very clear and concise – we will never undertake any selling of tokens on exchanges. We have large institutional OTC partners that these types of sales will be executed over if and when they happen in the future. This includes any tokens sold to cover the employee and founder tax liability with the IRS for April 2019.  In an effort to maintain transparency here is a current audit and balance matrix showing liquid supply and upcoming token movements. We will send an announcement when we are going to move token balances in cold wallets and the reason behind the move well before they happen from now on.  

The final circulating supply of $DAG tokens will be 628,341,430.42 until the first unlocking period the takes place on December the 1st, 2018.

Constellation Token Balance Audit (in Gooogle Sheets)

Click Here

We will follow up in the next 48hr with more detailed lockup timelines for the next 10 years to the market can understand how the liquidity will increase over this time. 

Many thanks for all of your support and we will be releasing more product updates in the next 48hrs, including a demo of our testnet.

Kind regards,


Constellation Update – Token Distribution, Orion and Press

Hello Constellation Community,

We’re overjoyed to announce that the token audit and distribution starts today at 1pm Pacific Time. We’ll be following up with another update as soon as it’s finalized along with further detail on our distribution approach.  We’re hugely proud of the team and thankful to the community for all the support over this busy period. Token distribution marks the soft launch of Orion, our membership portal to the Constellation ecosystem.  Read on for more information on Orion and a round-up of last weeks press and video content. 

Constellation – $DAG Token Distribution

Hello Constellation Community,

We’re excited to announce that tokens have been successfully distributed today, June the 18th 2018.  The $DAG token is live (See the contract on Etherscan here) and available for use in our community portal Orion. This marks the end of an intense sprint of development, token economics, marketing and channel development across our global community of supporters.  There are a lot of misconceptions about token distribution and the significance for blockchain businesses. We want to address some recurring questions from the community here and provide insight into the business decisions we’ve made.  Unlike a lot of projects, we’re builders and haven’t wasted resources on generating fomo around promises that we cannot deliver. We’re more interested in delivering products and continuing to build the Constellation network and community. The distribution of $DAG today allows us to do just that. There are also legal and regulatory reasons as to why we’ve operated in a certain way and we want to make those clear, we have a long-term vision and adhering to these rules protects that vision.  Please read on for further clarity on our decisions and positioning:

Constellation 101 – What is a DAG Cryptocurrency and how does it differ to traditional blockchains?

The concept of a DAG cryptocurrency (directed acyclic graph) was first introduced in 2015 by Sergio Demian Lerner in his paper outlining his concept for a digital currency called DAG coin. DAG technology is an alternative system that allows cryptocurrencies to function similarly to those that utilize blockchain technology without the need for blocks and miners.  

Let’s take a quick look at a technical definition before we break it down. A DAG is a finite directed graph which does not have directed cycles.  It consists of an infinite amount of edges and vertices, each edge being directed from one vertex to another without having to start at any one particular vertex or follow a consistent or directed sequence of edges to loop back to the same vertex again.

                       Blockchain                                                   DAG

Now let’s explain using the ‘efficient teacher’ analogy. As we all know, grading  papers can be a considerable workload for any teacher. If the teacher (let’s call him ‘Vitalik’) has 5 classes and approximately 150 students in total, he may have to grade upwards of 150 to 300 papers or assignments per week. Rather than spend a significant amount of his time grading these papers from scratch, Vitalik decides to hold a peer-review session in each class, once a week, for students to grade each other’s papers. Each new student who turns in a paper must review the paper of another student who previously turned in a paper during the same class period. Now, all Vitalik has to do is quickly review each pure graded paper as they are turned in to ensure that students are grading fairly. The occasional error is inevitable, but Vitalik is on the lookout for such errors, such as a miscalculation by a student, and he will manually take care of them as they present themselves.

A DAG is very similar to this peer grading system. Instead of having large mining firms confirming transactions via proof of work, DAG employs the very transactions that users make in order to confirm each other’s transactions. DAG is essentially  a distributed peer-confirming system at scale. The more new transactions on the network, the more the available transactions to confirm previous ones. This also means improved scalability.

So, why DAG over traditional blockchain? While there’s no doubt about how innovative Blockchain technology is, and the potential it has, we do have to acknowledge that it isn’t the answer to every problem in the world.

Every technology has its own share of limitations, and it’s no different with blockchain. Here are some of them:

Blockchain technology and the usage of block confirmation leads to scalability issues. Forks on the bitcoin blockchain like BCH, SegWit2x etc are aiming to solve this issue, however, if these issues are unsolved, we’ll see rising issues with transaction failures, high transaction fees, and long transaction times.

Hardware scalability:
With the increase in popularity of blockchain and cryptocurrencies, the cost of hardware is on the rise. This is also raising the cost of entry to mining, thereby making it centralized.

This is a common issue in all blockchain based systems. The basic goal should be that system should be able to handle the volume of transactions without choking.

Proof of Work Consensus Mechanism
Traditional crypto currencies are experiencing rapid centralization which is making individuals within the network powerful and able to take advantage of the system.  This is particularly apparent with bitcoin.

The infamous 51% attack and the advancement of quantum computing. Currencies such as Bitcoin run based on cryptographic algorithms or puzzles that are hard to solve with current hardware. As tech advances, how obsolete will this become? This isn’t anywhere in the near future, but with the advancement in quantum computing, solving that algorithm will become easier.

The Developer Learning Curve:
Various protocols require engineers to learn a new language, like Solidity for Ethereum or Ivy for Bitcoin. Many developers are not going to want to take the time to learn a new language when they have spent years in other coding languages – especially within enterprise organizations.

It’s clear that there is a lot of room for improvement when it comes to traditional blockchains, but how does a DAG differ from a traditional blockchain, and what are the advantages? To explain that, let’s look at another metaphor, ‘The Party’. In more traditional blockchains, the party host (Let’s call him Satoshi) provides the food/drinks (i.e resources) for the party. When the guests arrive, the amount of resources can only accommodate so many people, the portions are small, and then everything eventually runs out and Satoshi’s party ends. Think of Constellation DAG like a potluck (a party where everyone brings food/drinks). With every added guest (node to the network), the more resources the party has to keep going. This is the nature of a DAG, and of Constellations approach to scaling.

For more in depth information on Constellation visit the site and download the Whitepaper:

Or you can jump into our telegram:

Check out our CEO Brendan talking about some of the scaling issues of blockchain:

For more information on the DAG implementation used by Constellation, check out our Whitepaper:

If you’re as excited about DAGs as we are, feel free to check more about us here:

Join our Telegram community:

Consensus/Proof of Meme overview

The term meme was first introduced in 1976 by Richard Dawkins, and refers to a unit representing an imitable idea or behavior that can be spread. In our case, it represents benevolent behavior across Constellation that is rewarded and should be imitated to improve a nodes overall reputation within the system.  

In short, as each device on our network acts as a node, and the behavior of each individual node works along with other nodes to ensure the success of the greater network. For more in-depth information on the topic, check out our video featuring our CEO, Brendan Playford, and CTO, Wyatt Meldman-Floch, entitled “Reaching Consensus – Proof Of Meme”:

Anything about constellation or the Crypto space in general that you want us to tackle?  Let us know in telegram or in the comment section.

See you next week!











Constellation Update – Tech, Telegram and Proof of Meme

Hello Constellation Community,

We’re gathering pace as we approach token distribution on the 18th of June.  All cylinders are firing with a global awareness campaign launching on Tuesday consisting of a series of short social videos that explain the core features of our protocol. These will be supported with translated subtitles across key markets. Check out the first video in this blog update.

Our developer platform Orion has soft launched and we’d like to thank all the community involved in QA’ing and debugging the platform as we lead up to the main launch. Stay tuned for updates on bounty’s and documentation soon to go live.  for now, dive into the forum.

Read on to find out how we’re celebrating 20,000 users on our main channel, engineering updates and event news.

Constellation June Update

Hello Constellation Community,

By a long long shot, it has been the busiest and most eventful month for Constellation since our inception. First and foremost, we have tokens! Minting happened last week and we now have 4B Constellation DAGs in existence. For those that missed it, we released a detailed distribution model document over the weekend with a token percentage breakout across founders, advisors and the community. With minted token in wallets, Thursday and Friday were spent busily taking our first round investors and partners through the KYC/AML process. We have the process down and we’re ready for the wider community involvement when our first AirDrop hits July 7th.

Have you seen our Telegram Group lately? Over the past three weeks, we’ve been steadily increasing by around 300 new members a day and we’re nearing 20K. Altif has been busily expanding the community by onboarding Portuguese, Russain and Mandarin channels not to mention managing an already 6K strong AirDrop group. As our global footprint grows this will be reflected in our community strategy.

Read on for some topline updates from our engineering, marketing and leadership team. There’s so much more we’d like to talk about (Orion community portal wink wink) but we’re keeping our cards close until we’re ready to reveal. Hold on until next week.

Business Use Cases for Scalable Blockchain

The world economic forum has identified that we are well underway in the Fourth Industrial Revolution.  This industrial revolution, unlike previous industrial revolutions, is characterized by as the “fusing of the physical, digital and biological worlds, impacting all disciplines, economies and industries, and even challenging ideas about what it means to be human.” (Klaus Schwab).

Constellation May Update


Partner Update: Shasta Ventures

Shasta Ventures joins us as our latest strategic advisor. Shasta has advised a multitude of companies that have gone on to build multi million dollar businesses impacting and disrupting traditional models. They bring their grit , experience, and instinct to the Constellation team and will be crucial in helping us grow quickly and in the right direction over the next year and beyond. They’re team is multifaceted and includes some of Silicon Valley’s leading venture capitalists, developers, analysts,and marketers. Find out more about Shasta here.

Technology Update: We Have Nodes

 We’re setting up basic testing and infrastructure for the project with a MVP that we can rapidly iterate on. The below video demonstrates our unit tests for the required operations. We have UDP peer to peer operations tested, a variety of signing / transaction data tests, and a full end-to-end test where we spin up 3 fake nodes and have them start a blockchain from scratch, issue transactions, gossip to each other in a peer-to-peer fashion, and create blocks.

The test is using code that doesn’t include any previous cryptographic dependencies (apart from generic encryption libraries) — in other words this implements the most basic of blockchains from scratch and demonstrates the core functionality with no copy/paste solutions from another coin. 

More sneak peeks to come as we lead up to the developer portal and testnet.

Crypto Invest

The team had a busy three days at Crypto Invest, Diggles, Altif, Gina and Zac worked the booth for three days of non stop meeting with partners, universities, developers, and everyone else in between. Zac headed up the ICO stage to deliver a 15 min overview of Constellation to a crowd of eager investors and developers.  Video to come soon.

Wyatt CTO & Altif CCO – Ask Me Anything

Our CTO Wyatt and CCO Altif hosted an an hour long AMA on Facebook on  the 26th of April.  They dove into all sorts of topics; Rakugo, Proof of Meme, building DAGs, how to get into blockchain development and…the battle of Waterloo. 

AMA w/ CTO Wyatt

Posted by Constellation Labs on Thursday, April 26, 2018


Wyatt at Decentralize Singapore

This one is not for the faint of heart…Watch Wyatts blistering presentation of the technology and mathematical theories underpinning Constellations protocol. Flapmapping, thermo economics, type theory, merger sponge’s etc.

New team members

Darius Rugvicius: Advisor

We’d like to welcome Darius from Connect Capitial to the Constellation team. As a Decentralised web pioneer, advisor and investor for multiple blockchain companies, partner at blockchain and cryptocurrency investment funds, Darius will help propel our business in new and exciting directions

Ryle Goehausen: VP of Engineering

Ryle joins us from Sales Force with a ton of experience and passion for the space.  He’s building out systems for some of the worlds biggest data companies.  Now he’s with us.


The Constellation team will be on the ground for Ethereal and Consensus NY. Let us know if you’re going to be in NY on telegram for blockchain week.

And finally…

In case you missed it. Our Airdrop registration page is now open

All the best,

The Constellation Team

Stay tuned to our blog and telegram for future announcements .